Echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves to produce live images of your heart. The image is called an echocardiogram. This test allows your doctor to monitor how your heart and its valves are functioning.
- Blood clots in the heart chambers.
- Fluid in the sac around the heart.
- Problems with the aorta, which is the main artery connected to the heart.
- Problems with the pumping function or relaxing function of the heart.
- Problems with the function of your heart valves.
- Pressures in the heart.
An echocardiogram is key in determining the health of the heart muscle, especially after a heart attack. It can also reveal heart defects in unborn babies.
Percutaneous Tansluminal Coronary Angioplasty
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty(PTCA), is a minimally invasive procedure that opens blocked coronary arteries to improve blood flow to the heart muscle.
PTCA is sometimes known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). The combination of coronary angioplasty with stenting is usually referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
The term "angioplasty" means using a balloon to stretch open a narrowed or blocked artery. However, most modern angioplasty procedures also involve inserting a short wire-mesh tube, called a stent, into the artery during the procedure. The stent is left in place permanently to allow blood to flow more freely.
- A PTCA is one of the most common types of treatment for the heart.
- PTCA are most commonly performed in people aged 65 or older, as they're more likely to have heart disease.
- As the procedure doesn't involve making major incisions in the body, it's usually carried out safely in most people. Doctors refer to this as a minimally invasive form of treatment.
The carotid Doppler test, or carotid ultrasound, is a non-invasive test that uses sound waves to detect narrowing of your arteries or potential blockages caused by plaque. It helps your healthcare provider determine if you are at risk of having a stroke and if she needs to prescribe preventative measures.
Your large carotid arteries supply blood to the brain. These arteries can narrow due to arteriosclerosis or other causes and impede blood flow, which can lead to transient ischemic attack ( a mini-stroke) or cerebral vascular accident (a stroke).
- You have an increased risk of having a stroke.
- You have a blockage, known as an occlusion, from plaque, a blood clot or something else.
- Your carotid artery is narrowing, known as stenosis.
- Your health care provider hears an abnormal sound in your artery.
- You had a TIA (transient ischemic attack).
The Automatic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (AICD) is a device designed to monitor the heartbeat. This device can deliver an electrical impulse or shock to the heart when it senses a life-threatening change in the heart’s rhythm.
Like a pacemaker, the AICD is small enough to be implanted under the skin in the upper chest. The AICD system consists of:
- A pulse generator that can send an electrical impulse or shock to the heart.
- Electrodes that sense the rhythm of the heart and deliver a shock to the heart muscle.
- Batteries designed to last four to five years and deliver about 100 shocks.
- A small computer chip that tells the AICD when to deliver a shock.
An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD or AICD) is a permanent device in which a lead (wire) inserts into the right ventricle and monitors the heart rhythm. It is implanted similar to a single chamber pacemaker and the generator lays in the upper chest area and venous access is through the subclavian vein.
Therapies are delivered in the form of anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) or shocks to convert to sinus rhythm from sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, both of which are life-threatening rhythms.
Coronary angiography is a procedure that uses contrast dye, usually containing iodine, and x ray pictures to detect blockages in the coronary arteries that are caused by plaque buildup.
Blockages prevent your heart from getting oxygen and important nutrients. This procedure is used to diagnose ischemic heart disease after chest pain, sudden cardiac arrest, or abnormal results from tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG) of the heart or an exercise stress test.
It is important to detect blockages because over time they can cause chest pain, especially with physical activity or stress, or a heart attack. If you are having a heart attack, coronary angiography can help your doctors plan your treatment.
- Symptoms of coronary artery disease, such as chest pain (angina).
- Pain in your chest, jaw, neck or arm that can't be explained by other tests.
- New or increasing chest pain (unstable angina).
- A heart defect you were born with (congenital heart disease).
- Abnormal results on a noninvasive heart stress test.
- A heart valve problem that requires surgery.
Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently.
- Heart failure signs and symptoms may include:
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea) when you exert yourself or when you lie down.
- Fatigue and weakness.
- Swelling (edema) in your legs, ankles and feet.
- Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm.
- Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus.
- Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack.
- Balloon Angioplasty Procedure
- Angiography Procedure
- Heart Pacemaker
- Prevention of Blockage